Goat Business Information
So you want to get in the goat business?
Are you ready, really, really ready?
A. Will it fit your lifestyle and needs of your family, is your family supportive of this change?
B. Are your fences, pens, chutes, & sheds goat proof?
C. Is your grazing land adequate or what feed will you need?
D. Do you have a source for supplemental feed?
E. Is your predator controller in place?
F. In your medicine cabinet do you have:
- plastic gloves, syringes, needles
- hoof trimmers
G. Have you consulted with your vet about your new venture and is he a "goat" vet?
H. Have you located a breeder where you can purchase stock and then expect support from them?
I. Budget and financial matters.
Age of puberty - 7-10 months of age
Breeding weight, 60 to 75% of adult weight
length - 18-22 days
duration - 12-36 hours
signs tail - wagging, mounting, bleating
Ovulation - 12 to 36 hours from onset of standing heat
Gestation length - 146 to 155 days
Breeding Season - August through January
(some individuals will breed anytime)
Age of puberty - 4-8 months
Breeding age - 8-10 months
Breeding season - all year
Breeding ratio - 30 to 80 does
Until a new breeder's herd of nannies reaches at least 30 head it is advantageous to lease a fullblood registered buck so that all resulting nanny kids can be registered as 50% and be kept for replacement if desired.
IMPORTANT PRODUCTION TRAITS
1. Adaptability: Ability to survive in given environment and bility to reproduce in given environment
2. Reproduction: Conception rate, Kidding and number of offspring, Non-seasonality
3. Growth rate: Pre-weaning gain, Post-weaning gain
4. Carcass Characteristics
Temperature - 101.7 - 104.5 F
Heart rate - 70 -80/minute
Respiration rate - 12-15/minute
Ruminal movements - 1-1.5 /minute
RULES FOR GOAT HEALTH
a. Provide proper housing
b. Practice good sanitation
c. Provide adequate nutrition
d. Provide clean water
e. Observe how much feed they eat
f. Observe/know your animals
g. Observe the feces of your animals
h. Become familiar with the common diseases
i. Investigate the source of strange smells
j. Use your veterinarian for diagnosis
A HEALTHY GOAT
a. Eats well
b. Chews it cud
c. Has a shiny coat
d. Has strong legs and feet
e. Is sociable
f. Has bright and clear eyes.
SIGNS OF ILLNESS
a. Off feed, water, Diarrhea
b. No sign of cud chewing, runny eyes
c. Standing apart from group
e. Rough hair coat, hair falling out
f. Abnormal temperature, swelling on any part of body
g. Heavy mucous in nose & mouth, Pale mucosa of eyes and mouth
Upon arrival on site
c. Identification tag and records
UPHOFF'S PROGRAM 2011
NANNIES - AFTER KIDDING
- COVEXIN 8 2 cc SQ or Cavalry 9 1 cc SQ
- CYDECTIN (Purple) ORALLY (DOSAGE IS 1cc TO 10lbs) or Cydection Injectable orally 1 cc to 50 lbs
- BoSe – 1 cc per 40# (DILUTED SELENIUM per vet instruction)
- CLEANSING SHOT - 10cc SQ (this assists in cleaning, infections)
KIDDING - KIDS at birth
- BoSe -.25cc SQ orally (DILUTED SELENIUM)
- TETANUS ANTITOXIN - .4cc SQ
- ID, a product to build immunity, orally
- SPRAY OR DIP NAVEL W/TAMED IODINE
- WHITE WORMER GIVEN TO KIDS ON A SCHEDULE (We use Pyrantel Pamoate Suspension from UPCO at 1 cc per 10 lbs the first and fifteenth of each month on all kids on the ground, counting from the earliest born - orally.
WEAK OR SLOW TO NURSE KIDS
- 3 to 5cc of Dextrose 50% orally (warm is best for body temp)
- 1 cc 500 mg Thiamine orally (can be mixed with Dextrose)
- Also Vit E helps with weak legs, Use human Vit E capsule and Squeeze the liquid into the mouth.
KIDS - BILLYS AT 90 DAYS & WEAN - NANNYS AT 120 DAYS & WEAN
(We like to do first shots a week before weaning)
- COVEXIN 8 2cc SQ or Cavalry 9 1 cc SQ BOOSTER 1/2 cc SQ
- CYDECTIN (purple) orally 1 cc per 10# or Cydectin Inj. orally 1 cc for 50#
- C.L. - 1cc SQ Booster 1/2 cc SQ (Autogenous vaccine)
- SUPER POLY BAC B SOMNUS 1 cc SQ Booster1/2cc SQ
- CHLAMYDIA 1 cc SQ Booster 1 cc SQ
ADULT NANNIES BEFORE BREEDING
- COVEXIN 8 2cc SQ Booster 2cc SQ or Cavalry 9 1 cc SQ Booster 1/2cc SQ
- CYDECTIN (purple) orally 1 cc per 10# Or Cydectin Inj ORALLY 1 cc per 50#
- C.L. 1 cc SQ Booster 1/2 cc SQ (Autogenous vaccine) (if having CL problems use 1 cc for up to four shots or until you see results from this vaccine)
- SUPER POLYBACK B SOMNUS 1cc SQ, Booster1/2cc SQ
- CHLAMYDIA 1 cc SQ Booster 1 cc SQ
- SELENIUM 1 cc per 40# SQ We have started this since moving to Elwood as there is more of a problem here. Check with other livestock breeders in your area about selenium usage.
- SAME AS ABOVE - TWICE PER YEAR - MARCH & OCTOBER
- In 2007 we started giving the bucks BoSe appropriate to weight
- CYDECTIN (purple) 1 cc for 10# orally
- Cydectin Injectable 1 cc for 50# orally
- CYDECTIN IS THE PURPLE POUR ON FOR CATTLE
- We use CHLAMYDIA as a prevention for abortions and pinkeye.
Feeding strategy to increase ovulation rate, Starting 3-4 weeks before the breeding season, and throughout the breeding season, increase the plane of nutrition of does to be bred, use feed with Rumensin
a. Switch them to high quality pasture or
b. Supplement them with 1/2 lb. whole corn/head/day
To insure proper embryo development during the first month of pregnancy
a. Keep nutrition similar to that of the flushing period
BREEDING TIME CONSIDERATIONS
a. Facilities, adaptable for cold weather?
b. Target markets such as Easter, Christmas, 4-H
c. Time available for care
KID HEALTH PRACTICE
1. At Birth: Read vaccination program and follow, Make sure kids get colostrum and the teets are open on the nanny, Cold kids, warm and give 5cc dextrose orally. Milk nanny and keep them on her milk so you can return the kids to her, Start creep feed using rumensin to avoid coccidiosis and increase weight gain
2. Casteration: Knife, Emasulator, Elastrator
The question is why castrate if you will sell the buck kids at weaning time as at the present wethers do not bring any more money than the billy kids. If you creep feed your kids, these guys will be ready for the market at three months when you wean them, keep the nannies on their mother for four months to give them the extra growth to sell them or keep them for replacements.
FENCING - PERIMETER FENCE
- Smooth electrified wire: At least 42 inches tall, 6 to 8 inches near the ground, 8 to 12 inches at the top strand; Example 6-14-22-32-42-(52)
- Woven wire (6" X 6"): Effective, Cost at least twice as much as 5 strandwire electrified fence, Horned goats can get caught. Place an electric wire offset about 9" from woven wire fence about 18-24" off ground,
- Woven Wire (6"X12"): Effective, Cheaper, Horned goats usually do not get caught
FENCING - INTERIOR FENCES
1. Two to three wires with tread-in post: Braided or tape, Electronet
In a pasture situation, goats are "top down" grazers. They eat seed heads or the tops and progressively take the forage down. This behavior results in uniform grazing as goats do not like to graze close to the ground. Grazing goats have been observed to
- Select grass over clover,
- Prefer browse over graze,
- Graze along fence lines before center of a pasture,
- Refuse to graze forage that is trampled or soiled.
It is preferable to give goats a daily allowance of forage and to move the fence according rather than to let them roam freely, thus control grazing. Control grazing results in better animal performance, higher stock rates and increased pasture productivity. They should also be offered mineral with rumensin as this will help control coccidiosis and provide better utilization of the graze.